In the universal life, not only that of humans, the universe is governed by certain behaviors that explain its great functioning, hence the laws of the universe. In this way, our environment is also maintained in a complete order, since it is always necessary for the man to elaborate a few laws or norms that explain the attitudes of what is happening around or of what should be done, in the legal case.
On the other hand, in astronomy the laws created have not been a creation of the human being. Such laws are constant that explain what is the good functioning or the behavior of our universe. In fact, from the laws of the universe is that you can give foot to the studies of everything in space. This includes the movement of stars, planets, meteorites, kites, among others.
Besides this, there are also phenomena of the universe. As for this aspect, man has not yet been able to understand his real nature. The reason for this is that they are part of a mystery, but it is possible that these anomalies act on the basis of their own laws, which give movement in space. An example of this is the case of dark energy. It is not yet accurately known what is really nor why its accelerated behavior.
The name of the dark energy, precisely arises because the energy cannot be visualized and according to the darkness of this phenomenon is that it is known its behavior, that it is an expansive movement at universal level. For this reason, it is necessary to explain some universal laws that have been discovered by great scholars.
The Laws of the universe, As has been mentioned, no human being has imposed them, rather they have discovered that the universe is governed by some laws to be able to act in all its splendor. Thus, through studies, scientists have discovered the laws in which the universe has been based throughout its functioning. Providing information that helps the human being to know the whole cosmos or to serve as a collaboration for later studies.
One of these great scholars and collaborators in science, was the famous astronomy scientist, Johannes Kepler. Kepler studied in such a way the stars in the universal space which created what we today call Kepler’s laws. It is not only one, but three laws that deal with the movement of planets in the Solar system. These laws were formulated at the beginning of the 17th century. However today they remain in effect and function as a basis for previous studies on the behavior of the universe.
Kepler based its laws on planetary data to be able to understand the movements. These data were also gathered by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe, from whom he was assistant. For this reason the data continue in scientific research. The proposals that arose from these investigations, broke with the old claim that was centuries ago and that claimed that the planets were moving in orbits in the shape of circles. These are the three laws elaborated by Kepler:
Kepler’s First Law
In this law, Kepler explained that orbits on the planets revolve around the sun. However, it adds that instead of being circular, they are orbits are elliptical and in which the sun occupies one of the foci of the ellipse. In other words, the center of this law is based on explaining that the orbits around the sun are elliptical.
Later, Tycho Brahe made observations in which Kepler made the decision to determine whether the trajectories of the planets could be described with a curve. However, by trial and error, he succeeded in discovering that an ellipse could aptly describe the orbit of a planet over the sun. Primarily, the ellipses are defined by the length of the two axes they possess.
As far as the measurement, compared to a circle it can be said that it has the same diameter up and down, if measured to the width. But on the other hand, an ellipse has diameters of different lengths, it should always be so because it does not have a way in which all its sides have the same measure, as if it happens with the circle. In fact, the longest axis is called the major axis, and the shortest is called the minor axis.
All this explanation, comes to show because according to that distance is known that the planets move in ellipses, but in reality the orbits are almost circular. In addition to the planets, kites are also a good example of objects in our Solar system that can have very elliptical orbits.
When Kepler managed to determine that the planets have movements around the sun in the form of ellipses, it was the moment when he discovered another interesting fact. Kepler evinced the fact that the velocity of planets varies as they circle the sun.
Kepler’s second law
This law is what gives continuity to the previous discovery. This implies that this is where Kepler explains about the speed of the planets. In addition to this, in this specific point is where it affirms that the areas swept by the segment that joins the Sun with the planet, are also proportional to what are the times used to describe them. In this way, the speed of the planets is measured, bringing as a consequence that the closer the planet of the Sun is, the faster it moves.
This second law was discovered by Kepler by trial and error. This exploration, was given birth when Kepler noticed that the line connecting the planets and the sun, encompasses the same area in the same time span. After this, Kepler found that when the planets are near the sun in their orbit, they move faster than when they are farther away. This work led Kepler to obtain an important discovery about the distances of planets.
Kepler’s Third law
Already in this third law, not only explains the speed. In this aspect it is explained above all about the distance. The behavior of the planets, according to the distance of them. For this reason, in this third law Kepler emphasizes that the squares of the sidereal periods of revolution of the planets revolving around the sun, are proportional to the cubes of the major semiaxles of their elliptical orbits.
According to this law is allowed deduce that are the planets farthest to the sun, those that orbit at a lower speed than the nearest. In this way it is deduced that the period of revolution depends on the distance to the sun. The result of this was obtained through the following mathematical formula: P2 = A3. With this formula it is explained that the distant planets of the sun are the ones that take more time to go around it, unlike those that are close to the sun.
ISAAC Newton’s Laws
The Laws of the universe, From the existing laws at the scientific level, the astronomer, physicist and mathematician Isaac Newton, executed a transcendental role in his work. What Newton did, was to imply the orbital path of the moon and each of the artificial satellites that have been launched into space for scientific research.
One of the laws explaining the behavior of the universe and the bodies within it is the well-known law of gravitation or law of gravity. This law was formulated by Isaac Newton in 1684. According to Newton’s study, the attraction of gravity between two bodies is directly equitable to what is the product of their masses. However, it is inversely proportional to the square of the distance that may be between them.
This law, which is called the law of universal gravitation, is a law of classical physics. It could be said that it is also fundamental in science, since it describes the gravitational interaction between different bodies with mass. Whoever formulated this law was ISAAC Newton and published it through his book called Philosophiae Naturalis begin Mathematica, from the year 1687. In this book is where for the first time a quantitative relationship of the force is established with which two objects with mass are attracted.
What this explanation demonstrates is that the relationship is empirically deduced through observation. Thus, Newton concluded that the force with which two bodies are attracted with unequal mass, only depends on the value of their masses and the square of the distance that separates them.
Newton’s second law also managed to determine the behavior between large separation distances between bodies. In this sense, it was observed that the strength of these masses acts in a very approximate way. This is as if the whole mass of each of the bodies is concentrated exclusively on the medulla of gravity. It means it’s like these objects are just a point. This is what allows to considerably reduce the complexity of the interactions between complex bodies.
The second law described by Newton explains the acceleration of gravity. This explains the effect of Earth’s gravitational attraction. This indicates that the acceleration that supports a body is proportional to the force exerted on it, you get that the acceleration that suffers a body due to the force of gravity exerted by another. It means that this acceleration is independent of the mass presented by the object, only depends on the mass of the body that exerts the force and its distance.
Of course, it is according to which both masses are related by a constant of proportionality. This implies that precisely the mass of this object can be introduced into the law of Universal gravitation, in its simplest form and only for simplicity. For this reason it is necessary for this study to have had two bodies of different mass.
An example that is between two masses with different masses, is the moon and an artificial satellite. Of course, this applies only as long as the satellite has a mass of a few kilograms. In this case they are at the same distance from the Earth, the acceleration that produces this over both is exactly the same. As this acceleration has the same direction as that of the force, ie in the direction that joins both bodies.
It is necessary to know, in addition to the aforementioned laws, what is the Doppler effect, since it is a variation of the wavelength of light. The effect is thus called in honor to the Austrian physicist Christian Andreas Doppler. It explains what is the apparent frequency change of a wave produced by the relative movement of the source with respect to its observer.
An example of the Doppler effect, is the sound of a motor of a car up close. Since being away, you hear less loud than being close. In the same way it occurs from the moment a star or an entire galaxy moves away and occurs because its spectrum is moved towards the blue, but when it moves away it is moved towards the red. Even at present the galaxies that are in the sight are moved towards the red, which means that they move away from the earth.
There are daily examples of the Doppler effect in which the speed at which the wave-emitting object moves is comparable to the propagation speed of those waves. As an example we have the speed of an ambulance (50 km/h), although it may seem negligible relative to the speed of sound at sea level (about 1235 km/h).
However, this is approximately 4% of the speed of sound, this fraction is large enough to incite a clear assessment of the siren’s sound from a sharper tone to a more severe one. , just at the moment the vehicle passes by the Observer.