Origin and Characteristics of planet Earth

Planet Earth is part of the solar system and is the third that rotates in the internal orbit of its star that is the sun and is one of the terrestrial planets, with an average temperature of 15 °c, with a dense mass and oxygen, presence of liquid water essential for life. Find out the wonders of our planet.

planet Earth

History and Origin of planet Earth

You knew that the origin of the Earth is linked to meteorites and some single-celled microorganisms, because it is true. There are many theories surrounding the history and origin of the Earth, many agree that its origin goes back approximately to more than 4.55 billion years.

The scientists have made their studies analyzing the most ancient rocks of the world, for this they moved to the north of Arizona, Canada, Desert of Mexico (Allende).

They agreed that the meteorites that came from space, kept the same characteristics for millions of years, so they gave data of the number of years the earth had, because what was intended to prove is the age of the Earth.

The meteorites found gave evidence of the age of the Earth dating back over 4.5 billion years. They also provided information that the water came with them, as well as the amino acids that gave rise to the life of the first forms of life.

However, the microorganisms were also responsible for releasing the oxygen that nowadays is part of the air we need to live. Without the oxygen, we wouldn’t survive. You’ll be amazed do not miss watching this video will see how it happened.

How was planet Earth formed?

The scientists agree that our planet Earth and other planets were formed from the remnant matter of the solar nebula, from the cosmic dust, from gases, and that the sun is the oldest which dates back to 4,567,200,000 years, and the land of 4.55 billion of Añ You about.

With the outbreak of the solar nebula, the portions of matter were scattered and with the force of gravity, more cosmic dust and gases, the compaction of new cosmic bodies, the planets, began.

The process of accretion or compaction of the materials that formed the planet Earth with the help of gravity and of the other atmospheric conditions in the interstellar space, hard between 10 and 20 million of years approximately.

Evolution of planet Earth

planet Earth
Learn about the stages of the stages that marked the evolution of the Earth.

The Earth‘s crust has been subjected to large and continuous changes during its formation process, which have been slowly occurring promotions, land decreases, transgressions and regressions of marine waters, these continuous changes occurred in Very long periods of time.

Geological studies through fossils, plants and animals found in various areas and/or strata of the Earth’s crust, and the measurement using radioactivity of the world’s oldest rocks, making use of the radioactive method, which even It allowed to calculate the age of the Earth, which is between 4500 to 4.6 billion of years.

However, the evolution of the earth has been divided into five periods or geological eras and some of its most relevant features that you can review below:

The Azoica or Precambrian era of planet Earth

In the Azoica era or Precambrian period, they correspond the formation of the oldest reliefs on the terrestrial surface, that occurred between 4,500 and 4.6 billion of years and the beginning of the formation of the atmosphere.

The primary age or Paleozoic of the planet Earth

In the primary age or Paleozoic, it is attributed the appearance of the first unicellular beings, later the corals, despites, arborescent ferns, insects, conifers and the amphibians. This happened over 600 million.

The secondary age or Mesozoic of the planet Earth

To the secondary age or Mesozoic more than 225 million years ago. It corresponds to the emergence of the first reptiles, which then became reptiles flying (giant dragonflies), subsequently birds, then the appearance of the mammals, and finally the dinosaurs : Estegosaurus, Branquiosaurio, Diplodocus or Allosaurus, which were then extinguished. Among the plants: palms, pines and large ferns.

The tertiary or Cenozoic of the planet Earth

In the tertiary or Cenozoic period, dating back to 70 million and in which it is characterized by the appearance of species of herbs, trees and primates. Among the mammals: ruminant tapirs, whales, horses, rhinos, pigs, camels among others.

The quaternary or Anthropozoic era Era of the planet Earth

In the era quaternary or Anthropozoic era, is the shortest and most recent, dating from 1.8 to 2 million years, in this period is distinguished among the animals stand out large mammals, such as elephants, moose, bison and of course the human being. As for the vegetation there were no major changes.

Characteristics and description of planet Earth

planet Earth
Know how this wonderful planet Earth, has optimal and indispensable conditions that make it unique in the solar system: as:

The atmosphere by the presence of oxygen, the density of the mass and the presence of water that create the living conditions for humans, other living beings: animals and plants.

Planet Earth is the third in terms of distance to the sun, occupying the fifth place as far as the size of the other planets of the solar system and the densest of all. In such a way that it is the only one who meets the conditions for the existence of life.

In this sense, the earth is at an appropriate distance from the Sun’s Astro King, so that it provides the ideal energy to allow the heat to all living beings, if it were closer would be too much temperature and if on the contrary the planet was Farther away; Then the temperature would be so low that it would be impossible to keep.

Planet Earth is the only one in the solar system that has a plate tectonics. Its distance to the sun generates ideal conditions of source of energy and heat for the living beings. Presence of water. and its atmosphere.

Shape of the planet Earth

Planet Earth presents a shape or figure of sphere, flattened in the poles and bulging in the area of the equator. You know the details here.

This bulge towards the equator is caused by the rotational movement (centrifugal force), in fact in the area of Ecuador has a diameter of 43,000 km more to the diameter of one pole to the other. It should be noted that about 22,000 years ago the Earth presented a more spherical form, and this difference was noticed in 1990 by the scientists, and this was due to the presence of ice in the poles that when melting caused pressure and the bulge (force centripetal). In the year 2002 by the images captured by the GRACE satellite, which is a satellite set by an agreement between NASA and Germany.

Among the factors that have influenced the change in the shape of the planet Earth, it is the fact of the melting of the ice in Greenland and of Antarctica, which suggests a greater pressure and greater bulge. The Earth presents a spheroid deviation of 17%.

Size of planet Earth

Learn about the Earth’s measurement data.

The first measurement made of planet Earth was in 240 BC. By the mathematician, astronomer and geographer Erastóstenes, through the angle that was evident in the solstice both in Siena and in Alexandria. This calculation threw a margin of error of only 6% with respect to the current data; The diameter gave 12,000 km and a circumference of 40,000 km. At this time the spherical shape was assumed. Currently the diameter is 12,756 km in Ecuador and at the poles is 12,730 km; And the circumference in Ecuador is 40,091 km.

Color of planet Earth.

Although there are different opinions on this point, we invite you to document yourself and have your own criterion.

An image taken in October of 2014, by a Japanese satellite without filter and without editions, revealed that the tonality of the planet Earth is rather gray instead of the blue that had always been given as reference. The image was taken at a distance of 35,790 km away and you can see the clouds, oceans and desert in detail. It also allowed to observe and appreciate the reflection of the sun in the Sea of Australia.

However, in texts and publications of all kinds suggests the planet Earth blue, which indicate is by the reflection of the sky, with presence of green color by the plants and trees, brown tones coming from the terrestrial surface.

Importance of planet Earth

Find out what the key point of the Earth’s importance is.

Today, planet Earth is the only one in the solar system where life develops, even though scientists continue their research on the possibility of another planet with signs of living beings.

All species (humans, plants and animals) coexist this wonderful planet, each species is regulated by another and this in turn by another (trophic chains) which, allows the balance of existence.

Parts of planet Earth.

The earth is composed of different layers, with the ideal conditions to house the human life and all the plants and animals that inhabit this spectacular planet,

Externally, the planet Earth and its components are framed in a series of layers: hydrosphere, biosphere or lithosphere, atmosphere that allow us to breathe and to live quietly and also has an internal structure; Crust, mantle, and nucleus. Both internal and external structures will show them more widely. First you can check the internal structure and then the external..

Internal structure of planet Earth

You knew that planet Earth has two nuclei: a totally different external nucleus and internal one, which makes it different from the rest of the planets in the solar system.

The internal structure of planet Earth is divided into a series of layers according to their chemical and physical compassion, ie each has different properties:

The crust: It is the most superficial layer of the earth, of approximately 70 km of depth, composed of minerals: oxygen, solid silicate a mineral that is present in 95% of the terrestrial surface, iron and aluminium; Below is a deformity known as Mohorovičić discontinuity, which varies its thickness of 6 km in the oceans between 30 and 50 km on the continents, this deformity separates the crust from the mantle.

The mantle: occupies 82% of the total volume, the upper mantle is known as lithosphere, with an average density of 5.6 grams over cubic centimeter, extends from the lower limit of the crust to 2,900 kilometers of depth. Of the lithosphere is what are compound tectonic plates (rocks called peridotites containing oxygen, silicon, iron and magnesium).

The nucleus: represents 16% of the volume of Planet Earth, with a fluid part and a solid part, with the most elevated density of the entire solar system ranging from 14.5 to 18 grams over cubic centimeter. It is noted that it is composed of 10% nickel and 90% iron. The angular velocity of the inner core is rotated from 0.1 to 0.5, slightly higher than that of the planet.

External structure of planet Earth

As we indicate above external level is composed of a series of layers: hydrosphere, biosphere or lithosphere. So we invite you to know the most important features of this topic.

Planet Earth’s hydrosphere.

The hydrosphere is the layer of the earth that occupies 75%, is formed by the water, so that it is represented by the rivers, lakes, seas, oceans, groundwaters that make up the planet. The presence of abundant water on earth is a characteristic that makes it unique in front of the rest of the planets of the solar system.

Formed mainly by the oceans but technically includes all the water surfaces. The deepest place measured in the oceans is on the island of the Marianas, it is the abyss in Challenger.

Planet Earth and its oceans

Know the name and relevant data of the oceans of planet Earth.

The oceans are part of the land surface occupied by seawater, formed more than 4 billion years ago, divided by large tracts of land called continents or large archipelagos. In this wonderful planet there are five oceans: Pacific with an extension of 200.7 million km² occupies the third part of the planet’s surface, and has more than 25000 islands, the deepest point is located in this ocean known as the Marianas Trench; Atlantic with 106.4 million km²: separates Europe, America and Africa, the second in extension, covers approximately 20% of the surface, Indian: of 73,556,000 km², the third in volume, covers approximately 20% of the surface; Antarctic: 20,327,000 km², adjacent to the Arctic are unique in circling the globe; Arctic: 14,090,000 km²

Biosphere or lithosphere of planet Earth.

Do you know what the biosphere is? Find out in this segment.

The biosphere, is unique (from the Greek bio = life, Sphaira sphere). It is the layer that is where all the ecosystems are present, that allows the evolution of all the living beings that inhabit the planet Earth.

The use of the term biosphere is attributed to the English geologist Eduar Suess (1831-1914) and the Russian physicist Vladimir I. Vernadsky (1863-1945), is one of the four layers that surrounds the Earth in conjunction with the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere.

The sun plays a very important role, since the energy emitted in the form of light is absorbed by the plants and the process of photosynthesis begins, and its energy transforms the carbon dioxide into organic compounds such as sugars. The large part of the species of animals, plants, bacteria and other microorganisms depend on photosynthesis.

However, after the years of 1970, it was Evidencio that in other ecosystems even in conditions of extreme temperatures, they allow the life of a group of species, that inhabit the depths of the oceans that survive indirectly without the presence of the sun.

Atmosphere of planet Earth

planet Earth

Know what are the most significant elements found in the atmosphere.

Composed of a gaseous layer, without the presence of density, the gases present in this layer vary according to the pressure known as the “air” have oxygen and nitrogen, and necessary for life.

This layer is of vital importance to the planet, since it protects it from the solar radiation absorbing the UVA rays in the ozone layer. It is composed of 78% of nitrogen 21% of oxygen, 1% of other gases (0.03% between: ozone, carbon dioxide, other noble gases), with water vapour trace (0.97%)

Planet Earth Temperature

You knew that on Earth the temperature is variable and that it has an average temperature, check this data.

The planet Earth records an average temperature of 15 °c, however it is important to consider that it is variable and that the calculation of the average temperature is united to consider several factors like: the movement of rotation, the movement of translation and others like: the Latitude, altitude, slope of the relief, distance to the sea, direction of the seasonal and planetary winds., the masses of water

In 2016 increase at 1.25 °c The average temperature is attributed to the greenhouse effect.

Surface of Planet Earth

Find out how much is the percentage that occupies the surface of planet Earth and some of its most significant characteristics.

The planet Earth has a total area of 510,072,000 km²; of which 361,132,000 km² are covered with water, representing 70% and the rest 148,940,000 km², ie 30% is occupied by the continental Mass. However, beneath the water that fills the oceans and continents lies a layer made of rocks.

The Earth’s crust is fragmented into several large plates that move slowly towards each other. In fact, mountain ranges are formed when the plates collide and their edges are forced upward.

The plates move about an inch annually, which explains that the continents and the oceans millions of years ago had a different distribution than the current one.

The relief of the earth varies greatly from one place to another. It underwent changes in geological times due to erosion caused by precipitation, by glaciation,

The planet Earth and its mountains. Learn about some of the highest mountains on planet Earth and where they are:

In the Asian continent there is the largest mountain in the world. In such a way that the highest mountains are in the Himalayas with forty-eight including: The Everest of 8,848 m² of height, Kanchenjunga with 8,556 m², Lhotse of 8,516 m² of height, Makalu 8485 m², Cho Oyu of 8,188 m² , Dhalaugiri of 8,167 m², Manaslu of 8,163 m², Nanga Parbat of 8,125 m² and Annapurna I of 8,081 m² among others. In fact, all peaks of more than 7,000 m² in height are located in the central part of Asia.

The highest mountain in Africa is called Kibo (volcano) in the Kilimanjaro mountain range of 5,895 m². In Europe the highest peak is known as Mount Elbrús in the Caucasus mountain range of 5,652 m²; In South America Aconcagua in Argentina of 6,959 m²;