What is the Solar System?

Solar system

Origin and formation of the Solar system


The solar system was formed 4.568 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a region within a large molecular cloud, to form the solar system and planets, this initial cloud probably had several light years in diameter and probably gave origin To several stars this is the solar system of Copernicus.

As is typical of the molecular clouds, this was mainly composed of hydrogen, with a little helium, and small quantities of heavier elements that were previously fused by previous generations of stars.

As this area became the solar system, which was commonly called the pre-solar nebula collapsed, the conservation of the angular momentum made it spin faster. The center where most of the dough was collected, was made hotter and warmer than the surrounding disc.

As the contracting Nebula whirled faster, it began to flatten itself on a protoplanetario disc with a diameter of approximately 200 UA and a hot and dense proroasting in the center, however, there are other theories about the origin of solar system and planets, you know a little more about them.

Ptolemy’s theory

Solar system

This theory belongs to Claudio Ptolemy his model of the solar system and the planets develops from the celestial sphere this was a refinement of previous models developed by Greek astronomers (see: Greek cosmology).

However, Ptolemy’s greatest contribution was that his model could explain with such precision the movements of the heavenly body, and became the model for understanding the structure of the solar system.

The version of Ptolemy’s solar system, assumed that the Earth was the center not only of the solar system, but of the entire universe. The Ptolemaic model explained the apparent movements of the planets in a very direct way, to suppose that each planet moved in a small sphere or circle, called Epicycle, that moved in a sphere or larger circle, called Deferent.

The stars, they were supposed, moved in a celestial sphere around the planetary spheres. Ptolemy’s fame comes in part from what he discovered, but his influence was largely because he wrote a great summary of all that is known about astronomy. Ptolemy insisted that the work of the astronomer was to explain the movements of the planets using only a uniform circular motion.

Training theory

The French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes was the first to propose a model for the origin of the Solar system in his Le Monde which he wrote in 1632 and 1633 and by which he delayed the publication due to the Inquisition and was published only after his death in 1664.

In his view, the universe was full of whirling particle vortexes and the sun and planets had condensed from a particularly large vortex that had somehow contracted, explaining the circular movement of the planets.

However, this was before Newton’s theory of gravity and now we know that matter does not behave this way. Know other theories about the origin of the solar system and the planets in this video gives you more information about the most accepted theories, do not miss it.

Capture theory

The theory of the capture proposed by MM Woolfson in 1964, postulates that the system was formed from the interactions of the tides (see: As the moon affects the tides) between the sun and a low density proroasting. The gravity of the sun would have extracted material from the diffuse atmosphere of the protoaster which would then have collapsed to form the planets.

However, the capture theory predicts a different age for the sun that, for the planets, while the similar ages of the sun and the rest of the Solar system indicate that they were formed more or less at the same time.

As the captured planets initially would have eccentric Dormand and Woolfson orbits in 1974 and 1977 and Woolfson proposed the possibility of a collision. A filament is thrown by a protostar that passes and is captured by the sun and the planets are formed from it.

Cloud theory

In 1943, Soviet astronomer Otto Schmidt proposed that the sun, in its present form, passed through a dense interstellar cloud, emerging wrapped in a cloud of dust and gas from which the planets finally formed. This solved the problem of angular momentum assuming that the slow rotation of the sun was peculiar and that the planets were not formed at the same time as the sun.

This hypothesis was severely damaged by Victor Safronov, who showed that the time required to form the planets from a diffuse envelope would exceed the specific age of the Solar system. Ray Lyttleton modified the theory by showing that a third body was not necessary and proposed that a line accretion mechanism described by Bondi and Hoyle in 1944 would allow the star to capture the material from the cloud.

Formation of planets

Solar system

The planets were formed by accretion of the disc mentioned above, in this disc the dust and the gas were gravitationally attracted to each other, joining to form bigger and bigger bodies. Hundreds of Protoplanetas may have existed in the primitive Solar system, but they merged or were destroyed, leaving the planets, dwarf planets and remnants of lesser bodies that we currently have.

Because of its higher boiling points, only metals and silicates could exist in solid form in the warm interior solar system near the sun, and these eventually formed the rocky planets of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Because the metal elements only comprised a very small fraction of the solar nebula, the terrestrial planets could not grow much.

The giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were formed beyond the freezing line, at the point between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter where the material is cold enough for the volatile icy compounds to remain solid. (see: Who I believe or how the universe emerged)

The ice that formed these planets was more abundant than the metals and silicates that formed the terrestrial interior planets, which allowed them to grow sufficiently to capture large atmospheres of hydrogen and helium, the lighter elements and Abundant.

Formation of remaining bodies

Surplus residues that never became planets congregated in regions such as the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, and the Oort cloud. The nice model is an explanation for the creation of these regions and how the outer planets could have formed in different positions and migrated to their current orbits through various gravitational interactions.

In 50 million years, the pressure and density of the hydrogen in the center of the proroasting became large enough to begin thermonuclear fusion. The temperature, reaction speed, pressure and density increased until the hydrostatic equilibrium was achieved: the heat pressure equaled the force of gravity. At this point, the Sun became a star of the main sequence.

The phase of the main sequence was developed in an approximate period of about 10 billion years in the sun and two billion years for all the other phases of life associated with the sun that have been combined. The solar wind created the heliosphere and the gas also swept the remaining dust from the Protoplanetario disc in the interstellar space, ending the planetary formation process.

Characteristics of the Solar system

Solar system

The Solar system was formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a gigantic interstellar molecular cloud as indicated above. Much of the mass of the system is found in the sun another important part of the remaining concentration is contained in Jupiter.

The Solar system is a gravitational system that comprises the sun and the bodies that orbit it, either directly or indirectly. Of those bodies that orbit directly from the Sun, the eight largest are the planets, the rest are smaller bodies, like dwarf planets and other small organisms in the Solar system.

Size and location of the Solar system

If we talk about the size and location of the solar system and the planets, it is a bit complex because the actual size is not known only this can be speculative. This happens because they continually make new discoveries about the size of the solar system and the planets.

Regarding the location the Solar system and planets are located in the arm of Orion to 26.000 light years from the center of the Milky Way. To better understand the size of the solar system and the planets watch this video you will learn much more, do not miss it.

Size and location of the Solar system

If we talk about the size and location of the solar system and the planets, it is a bit complex because the actual size is not known only this can be speculative. This happens because they continually make new discoveries about the size of the solar system and the planets.

Regarding the location the Solar system and planets are located in the arm of Orion to 26.000 light years from the center of the Milky Way. To better understand the size of the solar system and the planets watch this video you will learn much more, do not miss it.

Distance in the Solar system

When you talk about the distance of the solar system and the planets, we mean the distance between them, this can be difficult because they cite very large distances that commonly the people who are not scientific do not manage. To make it a little easier to consider the distance that exists between the sun and the Earth, this is known as astronomical Unit (UA) and its equivalence is 149,597,870,700 M.

This is currently in force by the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union which put it into force on August 31, 2012. That said, we agreed that the distance between the Earth and the sun is a UA then the comparison with other planets would be as follows: between Mercury and the sun exists 0.39 ua of separation, between Venus and the sun there are 0.72 UA , meanwhile between Mars and the sun it is known that there is a distance of 1.88 UA.

Between Jupiter and the sun we have a distance of 5.20 UA, the distance between Saturn and the Sun is 9.54 UA, if we talk about Uranus and the sun exists 19.19 UA away, finally between Neptune and the sun move away a 30.06 UA, the moon is almost 400 times closer to the planet Earth than the sun.

Components of the Solar system

The components of the solar system in general are the Sun, the planets and the interplanetary medium is constituted by small body and belts, then in this part of the article you will know everything related to this interesting point of the solar system and The planets. Know much more about the components of the solar system and planets in this video, will provide you with a lot of interesting information do not miss it.

The Solar system and the sun

The Sun is the star of the Solar system and, by far, its largest component. Its large mass which are 332,900 Earth masses produces temperatures and densities in its nucleus high enough to maintain the nuclear fusion of hydrogen in helium, making it a star of the main sequence.

This liberates an enormous amount of energy, mainly radiated in space as electromagnetic radiation that reaches its maximum point in visible light.

This is a main sequence star of type G2, the hottest stars in the main sequence are much brighter. The temperature of the sun (see: Importance of the Sun) is intermediate between the hottest stars and the coolest stars. The stars brighter and hotter than the sun are rare, while the much weaker and colder stars known as red dwarfs constitute 85% of the stars in the Milky Way.

The sun has a greater abundance of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium called metals in astronomer language, that the stars of the population II. Heavier elements than hydrogen and helium were formed in the cores of ancient and explosive stars, so the first generation of stars had to die before the universe could be enriched with these atoms.

The oldest stars contain few metals, while the stars that were born later have more. It is believed that this high metallicity was crucial for the development of the planetary system of the sun because the planets are formed from the accumulation of metals.

The Solar system and the Planets

Solar system

It is formed of four small inner planets that are mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, these are terrestrial planets, which are composed mainly of rock and metal is also made up of four other outer planets or called giant planets, are Substantially more massive than terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are gas giants, which are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

The two planets farthest away, are Uranus and Neptune, are colossal ice bodies, which is composed mostly of substances with relatively high melting points if these are compared with hydrogen and helium that are called volatile, these substances It can be water, ammonia and methane. The eight planets have almost circular orbits that are within an almost flat disk called the ecliptic.

Within this category we could place several dozen or possibly tens of thousands of bodies large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity, these bodies are categorized as dwarf planets. The dwarf planets identified include the Ceres asteroid and the Neptunian objects Pluto and Eris.

Six of these planets, at least four of them orbiting the natural satellites, usually called moons, each of the outer planets is surrounded by dusty planetary rings and other small organisms.